India’s past is a perfect blend of East and West. For all time India has been a raider’s heaven. Its natural properties and captivating religions permitted it to adjust and attract many trespassers’. While several Persians, Greeks, Chinese nomads, Arabs, Portuguese, British and other invaders had raid this great nation in their own and varied ways. Most of them amalgamated into the Indian culture giving birth to a nation of complete diversity with respect to culture, values, religion, costumes, language, beliefs and structural designs.


Almost 5000 years ago, besides the Valley of Indus River prospered India’s foremost civilization. The lookalike towns of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (nowadays in Pakistan) were under the rule of priests and apprehend the basics of Hindu religion. Such civilizations were quite famous for having a classy way of life, an extremely good judgment of aesthetics, an amazing understanding of township development and an unreadable writing lingo. The Indus valley civilization was in existence for almost 1000 years. But in 1700 BC owing to tectonic disorders which caused cycle of floods led to fell of this civilization.


The failing Indus Valley civilization reached to the conclusion when Aryans were approaching India in 1500 BC. During starting period of Vedic age the Aryans arrived in, with their civilization’s culture and religious values, from the Northern part and extend to different regions as well. The four main granthas of Hindu religion, the Vedas were assembled during this era.


Around 567 B.C, Lord Mahavira who started the Jainism lived at the same time when Gautama Buddha, the creator of the Buddhism took birth. India and its subcontinents are mostly packed with caves, temples, monuments and tombstones belong to these creed and calls for a worthy visit.


During 4th century B.C., Mauryan Empire’s Emperor Ashoka-the-Great took over that part which is currently known as contemporary India. He was a great follower of Lord Buddha and constructed the cluster of memorials at Sanchi which is now inherited by UNESCO as a global heritage spot. Other monuments built by this great leader include the Sarnath’s Ashoka pillar which became the India’s national emblem. There is a Dharma Chakra encrypted on the Ashoka Pillar which also embellishes the National Flag of India.


The Mauryan dynasty was chased by the several Hindu dynasties viz., the Guptas in northern region, while the southern parts of India was ruled by the Cholas, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Hoysalas, the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Cheras. By the end of 1100s, these emperors also started trading with European and other Asian parts. The Gupta dynasty watches over that era of Indian history which is always depicted as “The Golden Age. The subjects like science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy and philosophy were well prospered during the ruling of these dynasties. The Ajanta Caves- painting in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, is one such work that can be illustrated here.


This trading led to the entrance of another religion Christianity inside the Indian Territory from the Europe. It is also said that around 7th century A.D some Zoroastrians and Parsis, grounded to the state of Gujarat and turn out to be a component of the grand combination of religions present in India with its significant and distinct aroma.


During 1192, an emperor from Afghanistan, Mohammed of Ghori, arrived to India and seizure quite a few places in the northern India with Delhi. As he left for home, one of his commandants turn out to be the foremost Sultan of Delhi, the present capital city of India. It was during this period when Islam was brought in to a most important area of North India. However, Islam was already introduced into the India’s western shore (now Kerala) by the Arabs.


Sooner the Delhi Sultan captured the major parts of Northern India. After some 200 years further, Timur from Turkey, popularly known as “Timur the Lame” or “Tamberlane” arrived in 1398 to conquer India. Before leaving with his armed forces, he was able to rob a lot of treasure that is possible for them to carry, and subsequently, the Delhi Sultanate was in no way so powerful over again. In a little while, the Mughals from Iran arrived in to catch the power of the northern India. The landmarks like the Tajmahal were created during this period.


During the 15th century, the Sikh guru, Guru Nanak Sahab set the base of the Sikhism in the state of Punjab where there is one more auspicious place to visit, the Golden Temple. The name of the state is Persian originally and implies “(The Land of) Five Waters” due to the following rivers that flows there. All being the tributaries of Indus: the Jhelum (the largest one), the Chenab, the Punjab has a prolonged history and wealthy cultural inheritance. The residents of the Punjab are called Punjabis whose lingo is Punjabi.


From the beginning of 1600s, Portugal, French, Dutch, Danish and Britishers started arriving in India. Each one of them captured provinces in India and became friends and rivals with rulers of India as they got deeply involved in the Indian political affairs. Ultimately, the British conquered the most part of India and lastly ended by making India one of their territories.


In the year 1947, following a lengthy struggle India obtained its freedom from British. This independence resulted in India’s division into two nations namely Hindustan and Pakistan. India attained independence on August 15th, 1947, since then the controlling power is with the Indian people rather than the British rulers. Subsequent to its freedom, India had made notable progress in every sector of economy. India has turn out to be a flourishing nation where business and agriculture have recorded remarkable signals of growth.

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